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How does chewing affect appetite?

Cassady, Bridget A. et al. “Mastication of Almonds: Effects of Lipid Bioaccessibility, Appetite, and Hormone Response.” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 89, No. 3, 2009, pp. 794-800., Doi: 10.3945 / ajcn.2008.26669.

Hollis, James H. “The Effect of Chewing on Food Intake, Satisfaction, and Body Weight.” Physiology and Behavior, vol. 193, 2018, pp. 242–245., Doi: 10.1016 / j.physbeh.2018.04.027.

Li, J., et al. “Enhancement of chewing activity reduces energy intake during a meal and modulates plasma intestinal hormone levels in obese and lean young Chinese men.” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 94, No. 3, 2011, p. 709-716., Doi: 10.3945 / ajcn.111.015164.

Miquel-Kergoat, Sophie et al. “Effects of Chewing on Appetite, Food Intake, and Gut Hormones: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.” Physiology and Behavior, vol. 151, 2015, pp. 88-96., Doi: 10.1016 / j.physbeh.2015.07.017.

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